Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021


Home page


Abi Khattar, Z., Gaudriault, S., Givaudan, A. 2016. A functional msbB acyltransferase of Photorhabdus luminescens, required for secondary lipid A acylation in gram-negative bacteria, confers resistance to anti-microbial peptides. Lebanese Science Journal, 17 (1), 45-56.

Apaire-Marchais, V., Ogliastro, M.-H., Chandre, F., Pennetier, C., Raymond, V., Lapied, B. 2016. Virus and calcium: an unexpected tandem to optimize insecticide efficacy. Environmental Microbiology Reports, 8 (2), 168-178. DOI : 10.1111/1758-2229.12377.

Bernardo, P., Muhire, B., François, S., Deshoux, M., Hartnady, P., Farkas, K., Kraberger, S., Filloux, D., Fernandez, E., Galzi, S., Ferdinand, R., Granier, M., Marais, A., Monge Blasco, P., Candresse, T., Escriu, F., Varsani, A., Harkins, G. W., Martin, D. P., Roumagnac, P. 2016. Molecular characterization and prevalence of two capulaviruses: Alfalfa leaf curl virus from France and Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus from South Africa. Virology, 493, 142-153. DOI : 10.1016/j.virol.2016.03.016.

Bisch, G., Ogier, J.-C., Médigue, C., Rouy, Z., Vincent, S., Tailliez, P., Givaudan, A., Gaudriault, S. 2016. Comparative genomics between two Xenorhabdus bovienii strains highlights differential evolutionary scenarios within an entomopathogenic bacterial species. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8 (1), 148-160. DOI : 10.1093/gbe/evv248.

Cambray, G., Guimaraes, J. C., Mutalik, V. K., Lam, C., Mai, Q. A., Thimmaiah, T., Carothers, J. M., Arkin, A. P., Endy, D., 2016. Measurement and modeling of intrinsic transcription terminators. Nucleic Acids Research, 44, 7006. DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkw379.

Diomande, S. E., Doublet, B., Vasaï, F., Guinebretière, M. H., Broussolle, V., Brillard, J. 2016. Expression of the genes encoding the CasK/R two-component system and the DesA desaturase during Bacillus cereus cold adaptation. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 363 (16), 9 p. DOI : 10.1093/femsle/fnw174.

Esquer Garrigos, Y., Greenfield, M. D., Party, V., Streiff, R. 2016. Characterization of 16 novel microsatellite loci for Ephippiger diurnus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) using pyrosequencing technology and cross-species amplification. European Journal of Entomology, 113, 302- 306. DOI : 10.14411/eje.2016.037.

Ferreira, T., van Reenen, C. A., Tailliez, P., Pages, S., Malan, A. P., Dicks, L. M. T. 2016. First report of the symbiotic bacterium Xenorhabdus indica associated with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema yirgalemenseJournal of Helminthology, 90 (01), 108-112. DOI : 10.1017/S0022149X14000583.

François, S., Filloux, D., Roumagnac, P., Bigot, D., Gayral, P., Martin, D., Froissart, R., Ogliastro, M.-H. 2016. Discovery of parvovirus-related sequences in an unexpected broad range of animals. Scientific Reports, 6, 30880. DOI : 10.1038/srep30880.

Ginies, C., Brillard, J., Nguyen The, C. 2016. Identification of fatty acids in Bacillus cereus. JOVE - Journal of Visualized Experiments, 118, 9 p. DOI : 10.3791/54960.

Greenfield, M. D., Esquer Garrigos, Y., Streiff, R., Party, V., 2016. Animal choruses emerge from receiver psychology. Scientific Reports, 6, 9. DOI : 10.1038/srep34369.

Kadja, A. B., Békro, Y.-A., Pirat, J.-L., Mamyrbekova Bekro, J. A., Volle, J.-N., Lecouvey, M., Boyer-Lavergne, M.-H. 2016. Chemical constituents and in vitro biological screening of dehydroacetic extracts of 3 African toothpicks. International Journal of Green and Herbal Chemistry, 5 (2), 201-208.

Lobon, I., Tucci, S., de Manuel, M., Ghirotto, S., Benazzo, A., Prado-Martinez, J., Lorente-Galdos, B., Nam, K., Dabad, M., Hernandez-Rodriguez, J., Comas, D., Navarro, A., Schierup, M. H., Andres, A. M., Barbujani, G., Hvilsom, C., Marques-Bonet, T. 2016. Demographic history of the genus Pan inferred from whole mitochondrial genome reconstructions. Genome Biology and Evolution, 8, 2020-2030. DOI : 10.1093/gbe/evw124.

Martinez, J., Lepetit, D., Ravallec, M., Fleury, F., Varaldi, J. 2016. Additional heritable virus in the parasitic wasp Leptopilina boulardi: prevalence, transmission and phenotypic effects. Journal of General Virology, 97, 523-535. DOI : 10.1099/jgv.0.000360.

Mathé Hubert, H., Colinet, D., Deleury, E., Belghazi, M., Ravallec, M., Poulain, J., Dossat, C., Poirié, M., Gatti, J.-L. 2016. Comparative venomics of Psyttalia lounsburyi and P. concolor, two olive fruit fly parasitoids: a hypothetical role for a GH1 Beta-glucosidase. Scientific Reports, 6, 35873. DOI : 10.1038/srep35873.

Mohamed, A. A., Zhang, L., Dorrah, M. A., Elmogy, M., Yousef, H. A., Bassal, T. T., Duvic, B. 2016. Molecular characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 61, 60-69. DOI : 10.1016/j.dci.2016.03.018.

Munch, K., Nam, K. W., Schierup, M. H., Mailund, T. 2016. Selective sweeps across twenty millions years of primate evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33 (12), 3065-3074. DOI : 10.1093/molbev/msw199.

Nguyen The, C., Bardin, M., Bérard, A., Berge, O., Brillard, J., Broussolle, V., Carlin, F., Renault, P., Tchamitchian, M., Morris, C. E. 2016. Agrifood systems and the microbial safety of fresh produce: trade-offs in the wake of increased sustainability. Science of the Total Environment, 562, 751-759. DOI : 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.241.

Noujeim, E., Sakr, J., Fanelli, E., Troccoli, A., Pages, S., Tarasco, E., De Luca, F. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of entomopathogenic nematodes and their bacterial symbionts from coastal areas in lebanon. Redia, 99, 127-137. DOI : 10.19263/REDIA-99.16.16.

Ogier, J.-C., Duvic, B., Lanois, A., Givaudan, A., Gaudriault, S. 2016. A new member of the growing family of contact-dependent growth inhibition systems in Xenorhabdus doucetiaePlos One 11, 19 p. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0167443.

Orsucci, M., Audiot, P., Pommier, A., Raynaud, C., Ramora, B., Zanetto, A., Bourguet, D., Streiff, R., 2016. Host specialization involving attraction, avoidance and performance, in two phytophagous moth species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 29 (1), 114-125. DOI : 10.1111/jeb.12766.

Pichon, A., Bézier, A., Barbe, V., Drezen, J.-M., Volkoff, A.-N. 2016. Parasitic wasps have domesticated viruses repeatedly during their evolution. Médecine Sciences, 32 (8-9), 699-703. DOI: 10.1051/medsci/20163208013.

Salasc, F., Mutuel, D., Debaisieux, S., Perrin, A., Dupressoir, T., Gosselin-Grenet, A.-S., Ogliastro, M.-H. 2016. Role of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/target of rapamycin pathway during ambidensovirus infection of insect cells. Journal of General Virology, 97 (1), 233-245. DOI : 10.1099/jgv.0.000327.