Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Institut Agro Montpellier LEPSE membre de Montpellier Université d'Excellence Labex AGRO Institut Carnot DigitAg

Home page


Studying the association between genetic polymorphisms and phenotypic traits is a major challenge in genomic studies.

The objectives and methods of phenotyping are therefore revisited in terms of :
    Throughput. The new genetic approaches require the phenotypic analysis of hundreds of genotypes, i.e. thousands of plants.
Progress is needed to acquire phenotypic information at high throughput. This implies progress in imaging (different spectra) and new sensors.
    Approaches and methods. Whole genome approaches have mostly been tested on simple phenotypes such as flowering date or metabolic traits, which do not require sophisticated phenotyping methods. The same approach for tolerance to biotic or abiotic stresses requires consideration of the marker X environment interaction, i.e. the genetic value of a marker depends on the environmental scenario in which the plants grow.
This requires, (i) fine control or at least measurement of the environmental conditions experienced by the plants, (ii) in situ measurement of plant response under contrasting environmental conditions, (iii) heritable indicators of plant metabolism and growth as a function of environmental conditions. Because of the wide range of environmental scenarios and allelic combinations, modelling plays an essential role in analysing marker X environment interactions and in predicting the agronomic values of allelic combinations.
    Data management and handling. Repeated measurements on thousands of plants generate large data sets.
This requires (i) the implementation of databases, consistent in terms of ontologies and architecture, (ii) the development of mathematical and statistical methods for data cleaning, temporal data analysis and association of phenotypic traits with genetic markers (iii) interfacing with databases integrating genetic information, tools allowing genetic analyses of traits involving different scales of plant organisation (organ, whole plant, canopy) and different temporal scales (from one second to one month).

PhenoArch has been designed to allow the conduct of phenotyping experiments under controlled conditions with the objective of identifying heritable traits with physiological value and usefulness in modelling (e.g. maximum growth rate or sensitivity to environmental conditions, or calculated variables such as radiation or water use efficiency).