Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal Institut Agro Montpellier LEPSE membre de University of Montpellier Labex AGRO Institut Carnot DigitAg

Home page

Valle Benoit

Valle Benoit
PhD student

Thesis defended on 26.06.2017

Topic : "Modelling and optimisation of lettuce growth in a dynamic agrivoltaic system"

Abstract :

Agrivoltaics, a combination of photovoltaic panels and a crop on the same soil, was proposed in 1982 as a solution to land use conflicts. Launched in 2010 in Montpellier, the concept of combining fixed panels and various crops has demonstrated improved combined plot productivity due, in particular, to the acclimatisation of the crop in the shade. In this thesis, the fixed panels were exchanged for steerable panels during the day. The objective was to optimise the orientation of the panels to maximise the combined productivity of the plot without penalising the crop. To this end, the growth and development of lettuce was analysed under controlled conditions and in the field under different shading modalities using fixed or mobile panels. The mobile panels improved the combined productivity of the plot compared to fixed panels, while maintaining crop production under certain conditions. An ecophysiological approach based on plant development, its ability to intercept and convert radiation into biomass, revealed that shading modalities had little impact on leaf area development despite differences in accumulated biomass in relation to radiation transmitted to the plant. Changes in leaf development led to better utilisation of transmitted radiation when it was reduced. This work led to the modelling of the impact of panel orientation on lettuce biomass, allowing for the optimisation of panel control according to the climatic scenario and production objectives.

Supervisor : Thierry SIMONNEAU

Research project

As a CIFRE PhD student in collaboration with the company Sun'R, an energy producer, I am working on the innovative concept of agrivoltaic systems (Duprazet al., 2010). My thesis topic is "Modeling and Dynamic Optimization of Agrivoltaic Systems with Servo Trackers", and I am studying the ecophysiological responses of plants under an orientable photovoltaic structure.
In a context of conflicting uses of arable land between food production and energy production (biofuels, biogas, etc.), the association of these two systems on the same surface could be the solution. Previous work (H. Marrou, 2010-2013) has shown that the presence of photovoltaic panels on top of crops can, under certain conditions, produce agricultural yields comparable to field crops.
In this new thesis project, the photovoltaic panels above the crops are now orientable. By adjusting them according to the time of day, the climate or the phenological stage of the crop, it is possible to modulate the quantity and quality of solar radiation according to the needs of the crop.
In the framework of my thesis, I will have the task of modelling the ecophysiological responses of crops under photovoltaic panels according to their control. In this context, the phenomena of light-shadow transition and induction of photosynthetic activity will be studied under fluctuating conditions. The objective is to determine the best control of the panels to increase the yield in comparison with a control crop in the field.


University curriculum

Agronomic Engineer ENSAT (T10, AgroBioSciences Végétales)
Master 2 Research UPS III Toulouse (BioSciences Végétales)
End of study project at the LIPM (INRA-CNRS, Toulouse)