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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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Alcoholic Fermentation: Yeasts, Aromas, Metabolism

The team FLAM is investigating alcoholic fermentation by wine yeasts with the aim to understand and control this process and to improve the quality and the aromatic profile of wines.
FLAM bandeau reduit

Team leaders : Carole Camarasa & Jean-Roch Mouret

Thus, our research projects are focused on characterising the phenotypic specificities of the different yeast species from the oenological consortium and gaining insights on their metabolism as well as on developing innovative strategies for fermentation management: control of temperature, yeast nutrition, co- or sequential inoculation with different yeast species, modelling and optimal control strategies….   

Two complementary research topics…

  • Specific phenotypic traits and metabolism of wine yeasts

An important objective of the team is to elucidate how the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main microbial agent during wine fermentation, operates and to unravel the mechanisms involved in its regulation. We are particularly interested in the identification of the metabolic origin of the major fermentative aromas (higher alcohols, acetate esters, ethyl esters…) and of unconventional volatile molecules and in the analysis of the impact of environmental factors on the orientation of carbon, nitrogen and aroma metabolism in S. cerevisiae.

Another research theme addresses the use during winemaking of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that, because of their distinctive properties, may positively contribute to the wine quality.  We are exploring the phenotypic diversity of the yeast species of the wine ecosystem for the production of metabolites or hydrolytic enzymes as well as their nutritive requirements, in order to better exploit their potentialities in the context of wine fermentation.

  • Controlling the wine fermentation to modulate the aroma profile of wines

A field of interest of the team is the design of new strategies for both a better management of the wine fermentation process and an improved quality of wines, taking into account the environmental constraints that modulate and influence yeast metabolism. With this aim, the impact of macromolecules which are present in the raw material (lees, polyphenols) and technological parameters on the fermentation kinetics or on the formation of target molecules is investigated

All this knowledge is further comprehensively analysed to build a predictive model of the fermentation dynamics and the aroma production in order to optimize the control of the process and to modulate the formation of aromas. 

… based on the development of new tools and methodologies

  • Fermentation tools*:
    • Fermentations at different scales from de 10 mL to 1 L, with an on-line monitoring of the CO2 production
    • Fermenter equipped with an online GC device to measure the production of volatile compounds (partnership with the experimental unit Pech-Rouge)
    • Multi-stage continuous fermentation device
    • Information system ALFIS: remote monitoring and database.

* : Pilot scale devices are located at the experimental unit of Pech Rouge.

  • Development of dedicated cutting-edge analytical methods for the accurate quantification of trace molecules
  • Quantitative analysis of yeast metabolism and its regulation
    • Stable isotope tracer experiment (13C, 15N)
  • Predictive modelling based on the combination of phenomenologic, stoichiometric, and physicochemical models.


Carole Camarasa

Senior scientist INRA

Tél : 04 99 61 23 36

Courriel :


Jean-Roch Mouret

Senior scientist INRA

Tél : 04 99 61 22 74

Courriel :

Jean-rocMouret bis


Researchers, Lecturers and Engineers :

  • Audrey Bloem,
  • Carole Camarasa (team leader)
  • Erick Casalta,
  • Vincent Farines,
  • Jean-Roch Mouret (team leader)
  • Valérie Nolleau,
  • Jean-Marie Sablayrolles


  • Pascale Brial,
  • Faiza Macna,
  • Marc Perez,
  • Christian Picou

PhD and Post-doc students:

  • Guillaume Bergler
  • Thomas Ochando
  • Pauline Seguinot
  • Camille Duc
  • Stéphanie Rollero

Fixed-term contract:

  • Adeline Andre

Publications :


Aceves C, Athes V, Buche P, Della Valle G, Farines V, Fonseca F, Guillard V, Kansou K, Kristiawan M, Monclus V, Mouret JR, Ndiaye A, Neveu P, Passot S, Penicaud C, Sablayrolles JM, Salmon JM, Thomopoulos R, Trelea IC. (2018). The virtual food system: Innovative models and experiential feedback in technologies for winemaking, the cereals chain, food packaging and eco-designed starter production. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 46: 54–64.

Aguera E, Sire Y, Mouret JR, Sablayrolles JM, Farines V. (2018). Comprehensive study of the evolution of the gas-liquid partitioning of acetaldehyde during wine alcoholic fermentation. J Agric Food Chem. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b01855.

Bloem A, Rollero S, Seguinot P, Crépin L, Perez M, Picou C, Camarasa C. (2018). Workflow based on the combination of isotopic tracer experiments to investigate microbial metabolism of multiple nutrient sources. J Vis Exp. 22;(131). doi: 10.3791/56393.

Brice C, Cubillos FA, Dequin S, Camarasa C, Martínez C. (2018). Adaptability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts to wine fermentation conditions relies on their strong ability to consume nitrogen. PLoS One. 13(2):e0192383. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192383.

Camarasa C, Chiron H, Daboussi F, Della Valle G, Dumas C, Farines V, Floury J, Gagnaire V, Gorret N, Leonil J, Mouret JR, O'Donohue MJ, Sablayrolles JM, Salmon JM, Saulnier L, Truan G. (2018). INRA's research in industrial biotechnology: for food, chemicals, materials and fuels. Review article. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 46: 140–152.

Eder M, Sanchez I, Brice C, Camarasa C, Legras JL, Dequin S. (2018). QTL mapping of volatile compound production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. BMC Genomics 19(1):166. doi: 10.1186/s12864-018-4562-8.

Englezos V, Cocolin L, Rantsiou K, Ortiz-Julien A, Bloem A, Dequin S, Camarasa C. (2018). Specific phenotypic traits of Starmerella bacillaris regarding nitrogen source consumption and central carbon metabolites production during wine fermentation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.00797-18.

Legras J-L, Galeote V, Bigey F, Camarasa C, Marsit S, Nidelet T, Sanchez I, Couloux A, Guy J, Franco-Duarte R, Marina MH, Gabaldon T, Schuller D, Sampaio JP, Dequin S. (2018). Adaptation of S. cerevisiae to fermented food environments reveals remarkable genome plasticity and the footprints of domestication. Mol Biol Evol. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msy066.

Ochando T, Mouret JR, Humbert-Goffard A, Sablayrolles JM, Farines V. (2018). Vicinal diketones and their precursors in wine alcoholic fermentation: Quantification and dynamics of production. Food Res Int. 103:192-199. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.10.040.

Rollero S, Bloem A, Ortiz-Julien A, Camarasa C, Divol B. (2018). Altered fermentation performances, growth, and metabolic footprints reveal competition for nutrients between yeast species inoculated in synthetic grape juice-like medium. Front Microbiol. 9:196. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00196.

Rollero S, Bloem A, Ortiz-Julien A, Camarasa C, Divol B. (2018). Fermentation performances and aroma production of non-conventional wine yeasts are influenced by nitrogen preferences. FEMS Yeast Res. doi: 10.1093/femsyr/foy055.

Seguinot P, Rollero S, Sanchez I, Sablayrolles JM, Ortiz-Julien A, Camarasa C, Mouret JR. (2018). Impact of the timing and the nature of nitrogen additions on the production kinetics of fermentative aromas by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during winemaking fermentation in synthetic media. Food Microbiology 76: 29e39.


Crépin L, Truong NM, Bloem A, Sanchez I, Dequin S, Camarasa C. 2017. Management of Multiple Nitrogen Sources during Wine Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 83(5). pii: e02617-16. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02617-16.

Dequin S, Escudier JL, Bely M, Noble J, Albertyn W,  Masneuf-Pomarède I, Marullo P, Salmon JM, Sablayrolles JM. 2017. How to adapt winemaking practices to modified grape composition under climate change conditions? OenoOne, 51:205-214.

Mendes I, Sanchez I, Franco-Duarte R, Camarasa C, Schuller D, Dequin S, Sousa MJ. 2017. Integrating transcriptomics and metabolomics for the analysis of the aroma profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from diverse origins. BMC Genomics. Jun 8;18(1):455. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-3816-1.

Ochando T, Mouret JR, Humbert-Goffard A, Sablayrolles JM, Farines V. 2017. Impact of initial lipid content and oxygen supply on alcoholic fermentation in champagne-like musts. Food Res Int. 98:87-94. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.11.010.

Rollero S, Mouret JR, Bloem A, Sanchez I, Ortiz-Julien A, Sablayrolles JM, Dequin S, Camarasa C. 2017. Quantitative 13 C-isotope labelling-based analysis to elucidate the influence of environmental parameters on the production of fermentative aromas during wine fermentation. Microb Biotechnol. 10(6):1649-1662. doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12749.